Para aprobar el examen Cambridge English First es muy importante saber bien qué verbos van seguidos de otro verbo en infinitivo y qué verbos van seguidos de uno en gerundio o -ing. Este tipo de verbos se usan mucho en parte 4 del Reading y Use of English, en las transformaciones.
No hay ninguna norma específica que nos indica claramente qué verbos van con infinitivo y cuales van con gerundio o -ing. Por ello hay que aprenderlos de memoria. Aquí va un listado de los mismos:
I. Introduction: Gerunds and Infinitives
Knowing when to use a gerund (-ing) or infinitive is not easy because there is no logical rule or reason. You have to learn them by heart or by repitition. It all depends on usage:
- after some verbs we use gerunds.
- after other verbs we use to + infinitives or bare infinitives.
- after some verbs we can use both gerunds and infinitives without changing the meaning.
- after some verbs if we use a gerund or an infinitive the meaning changes.
- after prepositions, we use gerunds always.
II. Use of gerunds (-ing)
We use gerunds (verb + ing):
- After certain verbs – I enjoy golfing (see box below)
- After prepositions – I slept eight hours before leaving the hotel.
- As the subject or object of a sentence – Running is good exercise.
Most common verbs followed by gerund (-ing form):
|enjoy||We enjoyed visiting my sister in San Francisco|
|anticipate||They anticipated losing the match so they were not disappointed.|
|recall||I don’t recall speaking to Susan yesterday.|
|understand||I don’t understand your complaining about everything all the time.|
|involve||Running a marathon involves training hard five days a week.|
|complete||He completed painting the room 5 minutes ago.|
|tolerate||My sister doesn’t tolerate smoking in front of her children.|
|imagine||She imagines owning a luxury sportscar one day.|
|mention||They mentioned going to the cinema.|
|deny||He denied telling his mother lies.|
|admit||He admitted stealing the money.|
|risk||He risked losing his life when he saved the cat from the fire.|
|can’t help||She can’t help getting nervous before sitting an exam.|
|can’t stand||My mom can’t stand listening to death metal.|
|consider||He is considering changing jobs.|
|practise||They practised playing the song until it sounded perfectly.|
|postpone||They postponed working on the project.|
|delay||She delayed becomming a mother all she could.|
|appreciate||I appreciate you explaining this to me.|
|miss||He misses walking his dog.|
|avoid||She avoids talking to her ex-husband.|
|keep||He kept running, even though he was injured.|
|suggest||My father suggested buying this car model.|
|mind||I don’t mind waiting outside.|
|finish||We’ve finished cleaning the kitchen.|
|dislike||He dislikes waiting for people who are late.|
|discuss||They discussed watching a film his weekend.|
|fancy||She fancies going for a walk and eating ice cream this afternoon.|
|recollect||She recollects going for a walk with her grandfather through Central Park when she was young.|
III. Use of to + infinitive
Most common verbs followed by to + infinitive:
|claim||He claimed to be the owner of the company.|
|arrange||They arranged to book a hotel near the city centre.|
|appear||He appears to be healthier.|
|deserve||I don’t deserve to lose my job.|
|tend||Runners tend to have long legs.|
|refuse||He refused to clean his room.|
|swear||She swore to serve her country with pride when she was in the military.|
|pretend||My sister used to pretend to be a princess when she was a child.|
|intend||She intends to buy a flat in Ibiza.|
|seem||They seem to be disappointed with the results.|
|wait||He waited to phone me until the following night.|
|offer||He offered to help with the washing up.|
|choose||He chose to leave Arizona because of the weather.|
|demand||She demanded to speak to the shop manager.|
|manage||My mom managed to fix the microwave all by herself.|
|can afford||He can’t afford to pay for that car.|
|promise||They promised to pay me back soon.|
|learn||They learnt to swim when they were babies.|
|hope||She hopes to find her lost cat soon.|
|plan||I plan to visit you next summer.|
|decide||He decided to marry his high school girlfriend.|
|agree||She agreed to come with me to the gig.|
|recommend*||I was recommended to buy a new car. / He recommended me to buy a new car.|
|ask*||I asked him to leave soon. / I asked to leave soon.|
|help*||My father helped us to carry the weight. / My father helped to carry the weight.|
|want*||I don’t want him to wait outside. / I don’t want to wait outside.|
|prepare*||We’ve prepared our son to learn the truth. / We’ve prepared to learn the truth.|
|expect*||He expects Paul to win the tournament. / He expects to win the tournament.|
|would like*||They’d like me to join the club. / They’d like to join the club.|
|would hate*||She’d hate to leave the party now. / She’d hate me to leave the party now.|
|would love*||They’d love me to see the house. / They’d love to see the house.|
|would prefer*||I ‘d prefer my daughter to eat fruit. / I’d prefer to eat fruit.|
*We can use an object before the infinitive with these verbs.
IV. Verbs followed by either a gerund or to-infinitive: no change in meaning
In this list the verbs have almost no difference in meaning. Passive infinitives are also common (example: She was allowed to go to the party).
|advise||The help desk advised checking the “Advanced Settings” option.
The help desk advised me to check the “Advanced Settings” option.
I was advised to check the “Advanced Settings” option.
|allow||In many countries, they don’t allow drinking alcohol in public places.In many countries drinking alcohol is not allowed in public places.
In many countries, they don’t allow people to drink alcohol in public places.
In many countries people aren’t allowed to drinking alcohol in public places.
|permit||The laws do not permit keeping dogs on the premises.
Keeping dogs is not permitted on the premises.
The laws do not permit tenants to keep dogs on the premises.
Tenants are not permitted to keep dogs on the premises.
|forbid||The authorities forbade entering the park because of a crime investigation.
The authorities forbade everyone to enter the park because of a crime investigation.
It was forbidden to enter the park because of a crime investigation..
|require||The project required working closely with other classmates
The project required us to work closely with other classmates.
We were required to work closely with other classmates.
|begin||I began to learn languages when I was eleven,
He began using this software one year ago.
|start||I started wondering what would happen if I lost my job.
After a while, I started to wonder why she’d said that.
|continue||Kate continued wearing her wedding ring after her husband’s death.
You continue to surprise me!
|cease||After ten years of use, the TV ceased to work.
They ceased fighting when they signed the peace treaty.
|intend||I hate being / to be late for class.|
|love||I love studying/to study grammar.|
|hate||I hate being/to be late for class.|
|like||She likes eating / to eat healthy food.|
|prefer||I prefer attending/to attend evening classes.|
V. Verbs followed by either a gerund or to-infinitive: change in meaning
These verbs can be followed by either the gerund or the infinitive with a change in meaning:
Remember + gerund
This is when you remember something that has happened in the past. You have a memory of it, like being able to see a movie of it in your head.
- I remember going to the beach when I was a child. (= I have a memory of going to the beach).
- He remembers closing the door. (= He has a memory of closing the door).
Remember + to + infinitive
This is when you think of something that you need to do. (And usually, you then do the thing).
- I remembered to buy milk. (= I was walking home and the idea that I needed milk came into my head, so I bought some).
- She remembered to send a card to her grandmother.
Forget + gerund
This is the opposite of remember + gerund. It’s when you forget about a memory, something that you’ve done in the past.
- Have we really studied this topic before? I forget reading about it.
- I told my brother that we’d spent Christmas at Granny’s house in 1985, but he’d forgotten going there.
Forget + to + infinitive
This is the opposite of remember + to + infinitive. It’s when you want to do something, but you forget about it.
- I forgot to call my mother. (= I wanted to call my mother, but when it was a good time to call her, I forgot. I was thinking about something else, and the idea to call my mother didn’t come into my head).
- She keeps forgetting to bring his book back.
Try + gerund
This is when you do something as an experiment. The thing you do is not difficult, but you want to see if doing it will have the result that you want.
- I wanted to stop smoking, so I tried using nicotine patches. (= Using nicotine patches was easy, but I wanted to know if it would help me stop smoking).
- She tried giving up chocolate, but it didn’t help her lose weight. (It was easy for her to give up chocolate. She gave it up to see if it would help her lose weight, but it didn’t).
Try + to + infinitive
This is when the thing you do itself is difficult and you don’t succeed in doing it.
- I tried to lift the suitcase, but it was too heavy.
- She tried to catch the bus, but she couldn’t run fast enough.
Look at the difference:
- I tried giving up chocolate (it was no problem to stop eating chocolate) but it didn’t make me feel more healthy.
- I tried to give up chocolate, but it was too hard. I always ate some when my friends offered it to me.
- It was too hot in the room. I tried opening the window (it was easy to open the window). It didn’t help though, because it was very hot outside too.
I tried to open the window, but I couldn’t because it was stuck.
Stop + gerund
When we stop doing something it means the verb in the gerund is the thing that we stop. It can mean ‘stop forever’ or ‘stop at that moment’.
- I stopped working when I was expecting a baby. (Working is the thing I stopped).
- My grandmother stopped driving when she was 85. (Driving is the thing she stopped).
- My boss came into the room, so I stopped browsing the internet.
- There was a fire alarm, so I stopped eating and went outside.
Stop + to + infinitive
In this case, we stop something else in order to do the verb in the infinitive.
- I stopped to eat lunch. (I stopped something else, maybe working or studying, because I wanted to eat lunch.
- She was shopping and she stopped to get a cup of coffee. (She stopped shopping because she wanted to get a cup of coffee).
Look at the difference:
- I stopped smoking. (I gave up cigarettes OR I threw away my cigarette at that moment).
- I stopped to smoke. (I stopped doing something else because I wanted to have a cigarette).
Regret + gerund
This is when you are sorry about something you did in the past and you wish you hadn’t done it.
- I regret going to bed so late. I’m really tired today.
- She regrets leaving school when she was sixteen. She wishes that she had studied more and then gone to university.
Regret + to + infinitive
We use this construction when we are giving someone bad news, in quite a formal way. The verb is almost always something like ‘say’ or ‘tell’ or ‘inform’.
- I regret to tell you that the train has been delayed.
- The company regrets to inform employees that the London office will close next year.